Education Sector

Education decentralization and accountability relationships in Latin America

The author analyzes decentralization reforms in the education sector in Latin America (their status, impact, and ongoing challenges) by making use of the accountability framework developed by the World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People. She starts by identifying three main groups of models according to the subnational actors involved, the pattern adopted in the distribution of functions across subnational actors, and the accountability system central to the model. Read more »

Enhancing accountability in schools

This note claims that contracting in education can be employed for initiatives of varying sizes and across a range of services. For policy-makers, contracting represents an effective means of introducing accountability in the education system. Contracting can also insulate governments from some of the criticism leveled at privatization. Moreover, it can bring in skills and capital to the education sector.

Education and social equity: with a special focus on scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in elementary education

The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are among the most socially and educationally disadvantaged groups in India. This paper examines issues concerning school access and equity for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe communities and also highlights their unique problems, which may require divergent policy responses. The paper is divided into seven main parts. Read more »

Increasing accountability in education in Parana State, Brazil

Education decentralization offers schools the potential to respond more effectively to parents and communities. Whether decentralization efforts realize this potential depends on parents’ information about school performance and the mechanisms available to express opinions to responsible decision makers. Brazil’s 1988 Constitution assigns responsibility for primary school finance and education delivery to municipalities and assigns responsibility for secondary school finance and education delivery to states. Read more »

Educational access in South Africa: country analytic report

This review of educational development in South Africa has been developed to explore key issues in access to education, capture recent research, and to identify gaps in knowledge and understanding. It is part of a programme of research developed collaboratively by partners in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and the UK within the Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity (CREATE). Read more »

A preliminary note on Kenya primary school enrolment trends over four decades

Ambitions to universalise primary enrolments are not new in many Sub Saharan African countries. In too many cases progress since independence has stalled and the gains made in the 1960s and 1970s have been lost. Most recently Education for All has added a new impetus to the push to improve access to education for Africa's children. This review analyses historic data from Kenya to explore fluctuating enrolment patterns over four decades. Read more »

Access to elementary education in India: country analytical review

This analytical review aims to explore trends in educational access and to delineate different groups which are vulnerable to exclusion from educational opportunities at the elementary stage. This review has drawn references from a series of analytical papers developed on different themes, including regional disparity in education, social equity and gender equity in education, the problem of drop out, education of the children of migrants, inequity in educational opportunities, health and nutrition, and governance of education, among others. Read more »

Managing teachers: the centrality of teacher management to quality education: lessons from developing countries

This report gathers together learning from primary research undertaken by CfBT Education Trust and VSO in thirteen developing countries and from other available national level research and international synthesis reports concerning the human resource aspects of quality education and in particular the role of teachers.

A budget guide for civil society organisations working in education

This guide provides civil society organisations (CSOs) in the education sector with the basic information they need to get started on budget work. It introduces core concepts relating to budgets, and discusses ways of analysing them. It also demonstrates how budget work can inform strategic advocacy messages, and bring about change in the education sector.

Social inclusion or poverty alleviation? Lessons from recent Brazillian experiences

Brazil’s recent economic growth has occurred in spite of the country’s persistent illiteracy: in 1999, approximately 15% of the total adult population was unable to read and write. In 1995, the government started the Bolsa-Escola programme as a first attempt at providing poor children with educational support. This was re-designed in 2003 to become the Bolsa-Familia programme which is currently being implemented nationwide. But how successful have the two programmes been from the perspective of poverty reduction and social inclusion? Read more »